The ITU brings together governments to coordinate the establishment and operation of global communication networks and services, including telegraph, telephone, radio communications, Internet, and the information society. It fosters cooperation and partnership among its members and offers technical assistance in this area. Paris, France.
UNESCO's purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting cooperation among nations through education, science, culture, and communication to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights, and fundamental freedoms without distinction of race, sex, language, or religion. Bern, Switzerland. The UPU attempts to secure the organization and improvement of the postal services, to promote international collaboration, and provide technical assistance in this area.
The member countries constitute a single postal territory. The purpose of WIPO is to promote international cooperation in the field of intellectual property rights. It works in the areas of both industrial and literary-artistic property. WMO coordinates global scientific activity to allow increasingly prompt and accurate weather prediction and other services for public, private, and commercial use. WHO acts as a coordinating authority on pressing global public health issues. WHO's objective, as set out in its Constitution, is the attainment of all peoples of the highest possible level of health.
World Bank. Washington, DC.
France and the United Nations
The World Bank is one of the world's main sources of development assistance. It focuses on the poorest people in the poorest countries. Vienna, Austria. The role of IAEA is to promote the contribution of atomic energy for peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world and to enhance the safety and security of radioactive materials and nuclear facilities worldwide. It has the responsibility of creating and implementing the safeguard provisions of various nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear free zone treaties.
The purposes of the IMF are to promote international monetary cooperation through consultation and collaboration, to promote exchange stability and orderly exchange arrangements, and to assist in the establishment of a multilateral system of payments and the elimination of foreign exchange restrictions. The United Nations is currently engaged in one of the most important debates in its history: how to reform itself, strengthen itself as an institution, and ensure that it addresses effectively the threats and challenges of the 21st century.
The United States is leading the effort to strengthen and reform the UN. Meaningful institutional reform must include measures to improve internal oversight and accountability, to identify cost savings, and to allocate resources to high priority programs and offices. Peace Building Commission: The U. Such a Commission would play an important role in helping countries in post-conflict situations. It could provide reconstruction and humanitarian support and set the stage for long-term development. Human Rights Council: The U. The problems with the current Commission, where human-rights abusers sit in judgment of democratic countries, are well known.
The Council's mandate would be to address the most egregious human rights abuses, provide technical assistance, and promote human rights as a global priority. The goal is to create a mechanism for supporting new and emerging democracies, providing assistance that would help develop civil society and democratic institutions. Comprehensive Convention on Terrorism: The U.
This would be an important symbolic achievement in the UN's global effort to counter terrorism. Development: The United States plays a leading, active, and positive role in development. As agreed in the Monterrey Consensus, the focus should be on supporting good governance and sound economic policies. Dag Hammarskjold Sweden —April 10, Sept.
U Thant Burma —Nov. Kurt Waldheim Austria —Jan. Javier Perez de Cuellar Peru —Jan. Boutros Boutros-Ghali Egypt —Jan. Ban Ki-moon South Korea —Jan. Ambassador John R. Bolton has served in that position since August 1, The mission acts as the channel of communication for the U. Government with the UN organs, agencies, and commissions at the UN headquarters and with the other permanent missions accredited to the UN and the non-member observer missions.
These missions report to the Department of State and receive guidance on questions of policy from the President, through the Secretary of State. More information about the U. Mission to the UN is available on the mission's web site at www. Henry Cabot Lodge , Jr.
Andrew Young —Jan. As a result of the conflict in Darfur, which the United States has called a genocide, thousands of people have been killed, nearly 2 million internally displaced, and over , made refugees in Chad. The latter resolution called for the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force to Darfur.
The United States is working intensively with other Security Council members to ensure that the transition of the African Union forces to a UN-led operation will take place as soon as possible. Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons represents a threat to the entire international community. In defiance of repeated calls from the United Nations Security Council and the International Atomic Energy Agency , the Iranian regime is continuing its nuclear program.
The United States, with its international partners, will continue to make every effort to achieve a successful diplomatic outcome, but there must be consequences, such as Security Council sanctions, for Iran's continued defiance. The United States worked with the other members of the Security Council to establish conditions for a lasting peace in Lebanon. The enhancement of the UN peacekeeping operation in Lebanon will help the democratic Lebanese government to regain control over its territory. It also will help to provide the conditions for the full implementation of Resolution , which calls for the end of foreign interference in Lebanese internal affairs and for the disbanding and disarming of militias in Lebanon.
France and the United Nations
In response to North Korea's launch of several ballistic missiles on July 5, , the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution The United States participated in and fully supported the Japanese-led efforts in making this resolution possible. In concert with its regional partners, the United States has urged the North Koreans to return without delay to the six-party talks for the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula.
This would allow North Korea to gain economic assistance and security, and to integrate itself into the region. The United States co-founded and continues to be the leading financial supporter of the United Nations. The United States is committed to ensuring good stewardship of United Nations resources so that these universal goals are met effectively and efficiently. The United States has been the largest contributor to the United Nations every year since its creation in In fiscal year , the U.
As the UN's largest contributor, the U. In particular, the U. In addition, the U. Stronger internal oversight and improved reporting require adequate resources and greater independence for the key Office of Internal Oversight Services. A fair and open procurement system is also necessary to ensure accountability and transparency. The United Nations was created 60 years ago to advance freedom, democracy, peace, security, human rights, and prosperity for all people. The United States is not alone in its commitment both to these ideals and to ongoing reform of UN operations.
In , more than heads of state and governments expressed a global consensus that wide-ranging UN reform is imperative. UN employees around the world must abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. With the number of peacekeeping operations at an all-time high and growing, it is all the more essential for the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations to consistently and comprehensively enforce its zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse by UN peacekeepers of the vulnerable citizens they are entrusted with protecting.
The establishment of an independent Ethics Office and enhanced "whistleblower" protections for UN staff who report wrongdoing were positive steps.
From the ashes of World War II
Now, the Secretary-General should ensure the office's jurisdiction over all UN funds and programs, and guarantee full protection for whistle-blowers. The Secretary-General has led the way in publicly disclosing his finances, and all senior UN officials should follow his example. UN staff should not only benefit the people they serve by their work, but also should set a standard for ethical public service.
Member States and United Nations officials should ensure careful stewardship of the UN's limited resources. Effective, results-based management will maximize resources available to improve the lives of the world's neediest people, who have the most to gain from reform. The General Assembly's biennial budget process is a powerful reform tool and should be used to reward programs that achieve desired results, while terminating low priority, poorly performing, or unnecessary programs. This approach requires measurable standards for success and regular performance assessments.
The UN Secretariat must ensure that the restructuring of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the creation of the new Department of Field Support strengthen UN capacity to backstop a growing number of peacekeepers. Accountability and transparency are at the heart of any well-run, effective organization.
The UN must enhance accountability and transparency through a stronger, more independent Office of Internal Oversight Services with adequate and flexible funding; improved reporting practices; and a fair, open, and cost-effective procurement system.
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To accomplish its mission, the United Nations requires leaders, staff, and Member States whose conduct reflects the ideals of the UN Charter. Nations that violate these ideals or are under UN sanctions should not be elected to limited membership bodies, such as the UN Security Council or the Human Rights Council, or to leadership positions in any UN body. President Bush addressed the United Nations General Assembly and called on every UN member to join a mission of liberation from tyranny, hunger, disease, illiteracy, and poverty. The UN must work to free people from tyranny and violence, hunger and disease, illiteracy and ignorance, and poverty and despair.
Terrorists and extremists who kill the innocent are a threat to civilized people everywhere. All civilized nations must work together to stop them by sharing intelligence about their networks, choking off their finances, and capturing or killing their operatives. In the long run, the best way to defeat the extremists is to defeat their dark ideology with a more hopeful vision of liberty.
Citizens in Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Iraq have made the choice for democracy, and every civilized nation has a responsibility to stand with them. The extremists are doing everything in their power to bring down these young democracies, and the people of Lebanon, Afghanistan, and Iraq have asked for our help.