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This variable seems to be a promising one in the study of positive social interactions. Moreover, this variable is also associated with other constructs, such as greater open-mindedness, tolerance and reparation and damaged social bonds Krumrei-Mancuso, Both ICT adoption and IH have several points in common, in particular, these variables have a crucial role in personal relationships. The literature has pointed out that older people might accept the challenge on adopting such uncertainty as the ICT offers, to keep in contact with their relatives, among others Charness and Boot, ; Boot et al.

Moreover, other fields are of interest, such as telehealth among others Czaja et al. These researches have highlighted the role of cognitive and attitudinal barriers. In the current study, the focus of attention includes processes related to both of them, such as thinking disposition, and more precisely, IH.

Furthermore, this variable may be invariant to aging, as most of the personality variables are.


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In this way, IH moderates or affects the relationship between age and ICT adoption, a robust relationship in the literature. On a methodological level, predictors can be related to an association in several ways, allowing researchers to interpret the underlying relationship, that may vary across fields. Moreover, both predictors are considered independent, but interact in the prediction of the Y variable.

The lack of previous correlations might indicate this as well, discarding also multicollinearity problems.

The Digital Divide: Facing A Crisis Or Creating A Myth?

On the other hand, specifically in relation to the independence of the intellect and the ego, reference is made to the fact that a person can have an open mind and not feel offended by sharing beliefs which are different to their own. Together, the items refer to the fact that when someone contradicts personal important beliefs, they do not take it as a personal attack. People who value positive social relationships may have this factor, which is a prominent aspect in the adoption of ICTs.

In turn, intellectual humility also means accepting more challenges and being more tolerant of frustration, which could derive from the learning of ICT. Some limitations have been found. First of all, women are overrepresented, as commonly found in this type of studies. In this way, it is crucial to highlight that the recruitment procedure was incidental, so, different bias might occur.

Considering that intellectual humility is a disposition of thought, some authors Ennis, ; Perkins, have supported the idea that thinking dispositions can be taught.

How does the digital divide affect the spread of popular culture?

This highlights the application of the current results in terms of training. Furthermore, he highlights some evidence for the learnability underlying the dispositional tendencies, reviewing skills programs as Odyssey, Instrumental Enrichment, CoRT, and Philosophy for Children. Finally, Perkins determines that intelligence can be learned in certain ways: e.

Literature has also shed light on the benefits across life span, and these gains are reflected in modest improvements in IQ scores. Therefore, we believe that promoting these types of intellectual virtues could suppose a protective effect that cushions the effects of age on adaptability to new times. Future lines of research must examine the role of IH as a protective factors related to social changes.

GB-V conceived and designed the study, collected and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript.

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II-M participated in the revision of the literature, study design, data collection and analysis, and drafting of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Dec 4. Beneyto-Arrojo , and Nuria Senent-Capuz.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Cognitive Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.

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Received Jun 27; Accepted Nov The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Literature has shown age-related differences in the adoption process.

Keywords: intellectual humility, ICT, age, cognitive variables, thinking dispositions.

The Moderating Role of Intellectual Humility in the Adoption of ICT: A Study Across Life-Span

Introduction Society today has to face constant changes and innovations in technology. Materials and Methods Participants A sample of participants women, Procedure Participants complete self-administered questionnaires and a written informed consent. Results As some literature has pointed out that differences between men and women might occur Liu and Guo, , descriptive analysis were carried out in both sexes as well as the whole dataset. Table 1 Descriptive analysis for the variables under study in terms of sex.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Pearson coefficient under the variables under study. Conclusion and Discussion The main conclusions can be described as follows: i IH might have a moderational role in the adoption process of mobiles and computers, ii The main factor in moderation was Independence of intellect and Ego and not other IH constructs iii even if MDPQ and CPQ were not correlated with Independence of intellect and Ego, a predicted model reached the statistical significance, stating the predictor independence iv Age was also not correlated with Independence of intellect and Ego.

Author Contributions GB-V conceived and designed the study, collected and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Anderson R. Facing a Crisis or Creating a Myth? Compaine B. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness. Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.

Gerontologist 55 — Moral and epistemic virtues. Metaphilosophy 34 1— Aging and information technology use: potential and barriers. In Technologies for Active Aging. Boston, MA: Springer, 27— Just as the Baby Boomers were pitted against the Gen Xers who were the ones who rode the crest of the internet wave, they in turn are being pitted with the Millennials who are more digital than physical.

Indeed, some futurists predict that even our bodies would be augmented by the digital revolution which can be seen in the way the development of the Virtual Reality, Cell Implants, and embedded Microchips, are all in various stages of development is an important reminder for those who are yet to be on the digital bandwagon to start preparing themselves for the exciting as well as bewildering future ahead. To conclude, we are on the cusp of a Brave New World and it does not harm if one prepares for such a future right now.

View All Articles. Similar Articles Under - Globalization. To Know more, click on About Us. The use of this material is free for learning and education purpose. Please reference authorship of content used, including link s to ManagementStudyGuide. What is Globalization? Why Growth is Stalling around the World?

Should Robots be Taxed? Is Dubai Really Tax Free? First, national economic development identifies the complexity of local economic systems. It is indicated by GDP per capita in logged. Second, the level of institutional democracy in identified the complexity of the national political system. These various sites of com- plexity identify potential sources of pressures on nation-states to more intensely engage in IT networks.

National commitment to the ideology of development is identified by the intensity of edu- cation programs and particularly of their emphasis on science. The penetration of global models through education and scientization serves as a carrier of additional global models, such as the notion of development.

To indicate such educational and scientization penetra- tion, we rely on a factor of education and science indicators circa The indicators composing this factor are membership in international nongovernmental organizations in , numbers of treaty signing , and membership in international nongovernmental science organizations. Appendix A lists the names of countries included in the analyses where they serve as the unit of analysis, as is appropriate for cross- national evaluations. Despite such change of indicators, our models produce substantively identical results.

Last, we rely on net sophistication score as the dependent variable indicating IT connec- tivity. The Causal Model Our hypotheses set IT connectivity, indicated by net sophistication score, as the depend- ent variable in a causal and panel model. The model assesses the cross-national effects of a series of independent variables measured in early s on IT connectivity measured in , while controlling for IT connectivity in Whereas in Model 1, the effect of the factor score for economic development in has a positive and significant effect as the sole control variable, such effect becomes nonsignificant and negative in all subsequent models when additional factors are intro- duced into the regression.

The negative sign of that regression coefficient is, most probably, a reflection of the fact that the net sophistication scores have increased faster in non-Western countries than in Western countries see Figure 4. Alternative indicators of system complex- ity—economic openness Model 4 and democracy Model 5 —also have no significant effect on change in IT sophistication.


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Nevertheless, it is clear from these various models that there is a sharp divide between Western and non-Western countries in their tendency to upgrade their IT usage. Data in table are unstandardized coefficients and standard errors in parentheses. Table 2 indicates, however, that a world linkages and b permeation of science and edu- cation are strong determinants of change in net sophistication scores. Indeed, both factors have consistent strong positive and significant effects on net sophistication score, Models ; also, despite various additions to the general model, their significant effects are stable.

Scatter plots of net sophistication scores with both these variables reveal clear lin- ear relations see Appendix B. These robust results indicate that the more links a country has to the global society and that the more a country is permeated by the institutions and prac- tices of science and education, the more it upgraded its IT usage during Our models for investigating the national factors that shape IT connectivity are, however, preliminary.

We intend to verify our results, stable and valid as they are currently, by adding several additional models. First, we intend to transform our dependent variable from a single indicator into a factor score. Currently, few cross-national measures of IT are longitudinal i. For this reason, we intend to go on searching for additional cross-national indicators of IT. Second, we intend to probe further into the lack of effects by system complexity factors.

Scatter plots for IT and each of the system complex- ity indicators reveal a series of linear relations; these relations, however, become discrete when added to our causal regression model. Third, case studies of national policies for adopting IT and harnessing it toward national development goals suggest that state involvement and the style of such involvement are key factors in the success of both the adoption and goal achievement see Evans, a, b. Indications of these factors should also be included into our general model; specifically, cross-national measures of state power and the type of state culture should be included into the empirical models for assessing the social factors shaping the extent of national e-connectivity.

This issue of the timeliness of indicators raises the question: Is the IT revolution similar to earlier information and communication revolutions, on a global scale? Some claims are made that Internet has created an information revolution and all the social consequences of such a social change similar to that of the telegraph or the print e.