Despite great investments, local agricultural production has decreased over the last decade, particularly due to deforestation and the use of unsustainable agricultural practices. This study targeted i estimating both accumulation and losses of soil nutrients due to tillage erosion and ii determining how tillage operations affect the separation of chemical forms of P.
Fertilizers usage is showed in Table 1. The runoff plot was established according to Wischmeier design, Plots were limited by metal sheets placed 40 cm deep in the soil, spaced 4.
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The runoff was collected directly to the end of the plot and then to a water tank, were samples were collect after every rainfall event resulting in runoff. The volume of the suspension in the tank was measured for latter calculations and the sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis. Soil was then weighted to estimate the amount lost by erosion. At the end of the crop cycle, all soil sediments samples collected were proportionally mixed according to the losses estimated for each rainfall, and a composite soil sample transported by runoff was obtained for each plot.
Field trials compared four tillage systems: i downhill plowing followed by the burning of crop residues DPB ; ii downhill plowing with no burning of the crop residues DPNB ; iii animal traction contour plowing, with strips of guinea grass Panicum maximum Jacq. Fertilization and pest and weed control were the same for all the treatments. One composited sample twenty individual samples was collected from the plowed player cm before planting and after harvest, between the rows and from the plants. Labile P and exchangeable K were extracted with the Mehlich 1 solution; exchangeable Ca and Mg were extracted with 1.
For the determination of organic and inorganic P fractions in soil and sediment samples, a sequential extraction technique was used, as described in Bowman Statistical analyses were performed by the software SAEG 5. Soil organic matter OM contents measured before planting and after harvest in the four tillage systems and the amount of soil lost by erosion kg ha 1 are shown in Table 2.
The low OM contents observed in DPB and DPNB treatments may be related to soil losses due to organic matter erosion, which were observed to be about three to six times greater than losses observed in treatments AT and MT, respectively.
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The accumulation of both total and exchangeable K was significantly higher in MT than in the other three plowing systems Table 3. Centurion et al.
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For the other tillage systems where there was soil disturbance, K was more uniformly distributed. Despite the decrease in the total K content after harvest, there was an increase in the exchangeable K content, both between rows and in the plants. MT is known to reduce losses of K Table 4. DPB system caused a great loss of K. Losses by leaching are also significant, since K has high solubility, especially in sandy soils. The increase in the contents of those nutrients may be related to fertilization practices Yoorin thermophosphate and manure or to the crop residues left on the soil surface.
Soil pH increased in both no-till and mulch tillage systems, as well as the contents of Ca, Mg and K. Losses of Ca and Mg due to erosion were lower than losses of K, and the lowest losses of those nutrients were observed in the MT system Table 4. Higher contents of total P were observed in the minimum tillage system, both between the rows and in the plants; the system favored P accumulation by reducing soil losses Figure 1.
Tillage system affected the distribution of labile, organic and inorganic P in the soil Table 5. Higher contents of labile P were registered in the MT system, since greater soil disturbance in the other systems move likely increased P availability. The more the soil is disturbed, the greater the contact between subsurface horizons and soluble phosphates, increasing the fixation of the most labile P into non-labile forms Novais et al. A decreasing in the percents of organic P in samples collected after harvest was also observed, for the three conventional tillage systems.
Remaining crop residues on the soil surface in the MT system favors the accumulation of OM Figure 1 , and consequently of organic P Table 3.
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To protect tree cover on such land as required for the prevention of erosion and flooding and the protection of water supplies. To effect the permanent reservation as forest reserves such areas of land as may be required to ensure the continuous supply of forest products. To maintain the level of forest growing stock, to ensure sound silvicultural practices are employed and to direct harvesting such that this growing stock is not reduced.
To protect such areas as may be required to provide a natural and undisturbed habitat for flora and fauna of Grenada. To encourage and assist owners and managers of forest, woodlands and plantations whether they be on private or Crown Lands. To create areas within the forest to satisfy needs for recreation within a peaceful natural environment. To encourage the fullest development of the productive forests. To encourage the establishment of appropriate forest industries. To protect the consumer by ensuring well manufactured forest products are supplied in conformity with market demand.
To extend educational and training opportunities at the professional, technical and vocational level to forestry personnel. To initiate and conduct forest research necessary to ensure fulfillment of this Forest Policy. Purpose of national park and protected areas system policy The purpose of the park policy statement is to provide a definite course of action for programmes concerned with the protection and use of the country's natural and cultural heritage. It integrates the intent of Government policy in conservation, forestry.
This policy provides the basis for the enactment of the legislation necessary for the Government of Grenada to manage units of the system.
General policy and principal goals The policy of the Government of Grenada will be to protect in perpetuity those areas which represent significant examples of the country's natural and cultural heritage, to encourage public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment of that heritage in ways which leave it unimpaired for future generations, and to guarantee a continual flow of social and economic benefits for the country and its people.
Management and development of the protected areas system and the consequent production of goods and services will be conducted in an appropriate manner within the cultural context of Grenada. In the context of national development policy, the goals of the national park policy are: 1. Development of a high quality living environment in a context of effective resource development which whenever possible retains the aesthetic value of the landscape.
Contribution to economic welfare and development through the establishment of productive sector links with protected areas, in order to maximize the availability of natural goods and services to the nation. Allocation of lands to optimum use - and in particular to preserve those areas with fragile ecosystems in which fewer development alternatives exist. Development of environmental awareness and appreciation in the general population.
Specific national park and protected areas system objectives Areas will be established within the National Park and Protected Areas System to meet one or more of the following objectives: 1. Maintain in a natural or near natural state areas that constitute examples of the country's terrestrial and marine ecosystems, landscapes and geological formations, in order to guarantee the continuity of evolutionary processes and their existence for future generations.
Provide and protect natural resources for outdoor recreation needed by the citizens of Grenada. Protect, manage and improve the natural and cultural landscape of the country in order to maintain the visual quality of the environment. Stimulate national and international tourism potential and revenue for the country.
Preserve genetic materials as elements of natural communities, minimize the loss of any plant or animal species and maintain biological diversity. Protect and manage fish and wildlife resources in view of their important role in environmental regulation, sport and recreational activities and as producers of protein and other products.
Provide area for research, formal and informal education and the monitoring of environmental processes. Protect and improve watersheds and water courses to maintain high standards of quality and quantity; control of erosion, sedimentation and flooding; protect downstream investments that depend on water supply, such as reservoirs and irrigation projects.
Protect sites and objects of cultural, historical and archeological heritage as a basis for educational tourism. Stimulate rational use of marginal areas and environmentally sound rural development. Deforestation on steep slopes adjacent to inland bays can cause sedimentation of the marine waters which can have detrimental effects on the coral reefs. Categories of protected areas. National parks Natural landmarks Cultural landmarks Protected seascapes Multiple use management area.
The Government will protect and manage natural and cultural resources in five managements categories: National parks Purpose The protection of outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or international importance. The national park should provide recreational, scientific and educational activities. Criteria for Selection National parks are relatively large land or water areas containing a complex of ecosystems.
They should include the most outstanding natural areas of the country, be under strict Government control and conform to international standards. Management Objectives To protect natural resources through a zoning system which will ensure the provision of strict protection in some areas and intensive recreational and educational uses in other areas without disrupting the long range objective of ensuring the area is available to future generations.
Natural landmarks Purpose To protect natural features of a unique character such as outstanding waterfalls, cave systems, geological features and distinctive landmarks and to ensure that these features do not lose their unique characteristics.
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Criteria for Selection Size is determined by the specific feature and the surrounding area necessary to ensure its protection. The features should be distinctive, and in a near natural state. Generally, these would be small areas rather than complete ecosystems and provide opportunities for recreational activities. Management Objectives To provide public access for recreational users but respecting the characteristics of the feature.
These uses may be intense provided they do not destroy the basic feature protected. Cultural landmarks Purpose To protect cultural features of a unique character such as old sugar and rum mills, military forts, great estate houses and their surrounding grounds, churches and Amerindian sites. Criteria for Selection Size will often be determined by the ownership status and by the specific features.
The features should have potential for helping Grenadians and visitors understand the cultural and historical heritage of the Island. Management Objectives To provide public access for educational and recreational uses related to the characteristics of the feature. These sites will be developed with the collaboration of the National Trust, the Historical Society and other agencies, and if the areas are privately owned, in conjunction with the owners.
Examples Fort Frederick, Carib's Leap, and Thiboud-Limlair Estate Protected seascapes Purpose To protect outstanding littoral mangrove and island habitats, beaches and coral reefs which possess special aesthetic and ecological qualities. Life styles which have traditionally utilized marine and terrestrial resources can continue to co-exist. The boundaries of these areas will be set to include land adjacent to the shorelines and coral reef systems.
Criteria for Selection The size of the area will depend upon special arrangements with owners, since State land only extends to the high water mark. Management Objectives To ensure the ecological integrity and scenic quality of seascapes is maintained for demonstrating the harmonious interactions of man with the sea, while providing opportunities for recreation, tourism, education and research. Multiple use management area Purpose To manage natural resources and ecological processes to contribute significantly to the economic needs of the nation.
The multiple function of these lands and waters can provide sustained yields of natural products and conserve genetic diversity. Private lands needed for inclusion within the National Park System will be acquired under the provision of Land Acquisition Ordinance which allows for the acquisition of lands for public purposes. Ownership of all or most of the land should be by the Government. Conservation of nature will be primarily oriented to the support of economic activities but zones also may be established for nature protection.
Margaret or Seven Sister Falls within the Forest Reserve is an invigorating hike through banana and nutmeg plantations.