It will concentrate on detailed studies of the factors associated with species threatened by trade, examining the effectiveness of actual and potential regulatory systems, building government capacity to implement and enforce appropriate legislation, and intensifying the communication of information and dialogue with relevant parties to forge cooperation in seeking solutions. Numerous plant and animal species are relied upon as a primary source of medicine for much of the developing world's population.
Medicines made from wild species are used as remedies for anything from the common cold to cancer, with traditional medicine being an integral component of national health care systems in some countries such as China.
Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants Asia and the Pacific PDF
Through the local use and production of traditional medicines, medicinal wildlife products also make important contributions to local efforts to improve human health as part of the larger development process. Use of natural health care products is also commonplace in many industrialised countries, where consumption of animal and plant-based medicines, herbal products and cosmetics is widespread. Increases in trade, travel and communication have facilitated the exchange and adoption of treatments from, for instance, traditional Asian medicine and Western medicinal practices, among a growing segment of the world's population.
The trade to industrialised countries of raw medicinal products and packaged medicines constitutes an important source of export revenue and is a sector with high growth potential. It was estimated that the global monetary value of all plant-based pharmaceuticals in OECD countries would reach USD billion by the year Significant private sector involvement means there are increased employment opportunities.
However, the benefits are not distributed to those working closest to the resource - the harvesters.
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific - CRC Press Book
The potential for over-exploitation of wildlife resources is often either unknown or not fully taken into account by those dependent on the medicinal trade, the beneficiaries of the trade or the government policy makers responsible for ensuring adequate attention to conservation and economic issues. Rising demand may lead to a direct threat to species populations.
The minimum inhibitory concentration by which the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the tissue of A. Its anti-tuberculosis activity reported by Sivakumar and Jayaraman, [ 61 ] revealed that, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the bark of C. Traditionally, it is used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent for both human and plant pathogens. It is also used as an expectorant to treat pneumonia and asthma [ 33 ]. The in-vitro study of the aqueous leave extract of A.
Pneumonia is a respiratory tract infection characterized by the inflammation of one or both lungs as a results of the accumulation of pus in the alveoli. Pneumonia which can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi can be mild, severe or life threatening. Bacterial pneumonia can be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae which is the commonest cause, Staphylococcus aureus , Moraxella catarrhalis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenza , Chlamydophila pneumonia and Legionella pneumophila.
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia PCP is a fungal pneumonia commonly found in immunocompromised patients.
Viral pneumonia can also be caused by adenovirus, Varicella zoster, Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus [ 64 , 65 ]. Traditionally, medicinal plants have been employed for treating pneumonia and hence the need to prove, scientifically, their folkloric uses. Researchers have investigated such plant, and below is a review on some of the reported plants with demonstrated activity.
In Ethiopian herbal medicine, members of the genus Echinops from family Asteraceae are used for the treatment of diarrhea, intestinal worm infestation, hemorrhoids, migraine and different forms of infections [ 66 ]. Zamzam water extract of E. Various species of Verbascum , of the family Scrophulariaceae, have been used to treat pulmonary diseases in traditional medicine as a results of its antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus [ 68 ].
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of V. The micro-broth dilution method was used to study the inhibitory activity of aqueous extract of P.
The extract was able to inhibit multidrug resistant S. This illustrates its potential to be used as medicine in the treatment pneumonia caused by multidrug resistant S. Sugar-producing plants contain bioactive compounds, which are active against microbes and hence are able to protect the sugar from fermenting or from undergoing any alteration [ 71 ]. The study of the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanolic leaf lamina and midrib extracts as well as fractions n-hexane and chloroform against K.
Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease and congestive respiratory disorder brought about by airway narrowing. It symptoms may include episodic wheezing, cough and chest tightness resulting in airflow block. It leads to changes in the levels of eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, cytokines and other inflammatory cell products. There is increased prevalence worldwide especially in industrialized countries and among children with increased morbidity and mortality rate [ 73 , 74 ].
Medicinal plants have been screened for properties that enhance their activity as anti-asthmatic agents, since current medications have adverse side effects.
Few of such plants with demonstrated activity are reviewed below. This suggests that curcumin can be used as complementary medicine in the treatment of Asthma. The stems can be erect to prostrate, sometimes scrambling or climbing into other plants for support. It is widespread in the tropics and subtropics of Africa through Asia to the Philippines and New Guinea.
It is used traditionally for treating cough, sore throat, indigestion, wounds, and diabetics and as a vermifuge for children [ 75 ]. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of A. Pers, of the family Poaceae is a short-lived, prostrate, perennial grass. It is widely naturalized in the temperate to tropical zones of Europe, Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Americas. Its habitat is along roadsides and in exposed rocky or sandy sites.
It use in traditional medicine to stop bleeding in minor injuries, for weak vision and eye disorders, piles, asthma, tumors among others [ 77 ]. It is traditionally used to cure cough, cold, pruritis, asthma and rheumatism [ 79 ]. It commonly grown in many regions of Saudi Arabia and the Eastern Province. The seeds are used to cure bronchitis, asthma, cough, and useful as abortifacient, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, diuretic, expectorant, gastrointestinal stimulant, gastroprotective, laxative and stomachic [ 82 ].
Hypoxidaceae is a stemless evergreen perennial herb producing a cluster of leaves from the roots and spreading to form a clump. Alcoholic extract of C. There is therefore the need to subject these plants to further studies, by isolating active compounds which can be processed into new and potent medicines and the need to study their mechanisms of action. Licensee IntechOpen.
This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Shagufta Perveen. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract This chapter focuses on reviewing publications on medicinal plants used in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria, cholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis and asthma.
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Keywords medicinal plants malaria diarrhea tuberculosis asthma. Medicinal plants with demonstrated activity against Vibrio cholera Cholera is an acute intestinal disease caused by a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative, comma-shaped rod bacterium, known as V. Medicinal plants with demonstrated anti-tuberculosis activity Tuberculosis TB is an airborne infectious disease which does not only affect the lungs but also other parts of the body such as the brain and spine [ 52 ]. Medicinal plants with demonstrated activity against pneumonia Pneumonia is a respiratory tract infection characterized by the inflammation of one or both lungs as a results of the accumulation of pus in the alveoli.
Medicinal plants with demonstrated anti-asthmatic activity Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease and congestive respiratory disorder brought about by airway narrowing. Conclusion All the plants reviewed exhibited potent activity confirming their various traditional uses and their ability to treat prevalent diseases. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.
This proceedings is a result of the first stakeholder meeting of the countries and institutions involved in the project. It is a combination of reports on the framework of the project, the status report of countries on their medicinal plant programme, the agreements among the participants during this meeting in terms of priority project activities and the different country research proposals on medicinal plants. Other subjects. Bibliographic information. Language : English. Extent : v, p. ISBN : All titles : " Medicinal plants research in Asia.