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Investigations at various dispersions of Nano particulate agglomerates with a variable solid content have demonstrated the considerable advantage of ultrasound when compared with other technologies, such as rotor stator mixers piston homogenizers or wet milling methods. Meanwhile, because of dependence of rhythm of longitudinal wave and fluid vibration rhythm, cavitation speed bubbles generation and collapse is controlled by longitudinal wave frequency.

Therefore, higher frequency makes faster cavitation that clear ultrasonic role in this process but stable cavitation is commonly observed at frequencies more than kHz. Drinking Water Treatment Drinking water treatment in most municipalities is performing by a huge treatment plant based on screening, coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfection [19]. Basically, coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water.

Suspended solids in water have a negative charge and since they have the same type of surface charge, they repel each other when they come close together then suspended solids will remain in suspension. Therefore, they will not clump together and settle out of the water, unless proper coagulation and flocculation is used. Coagulation and flocculation occurs in successive steps, allowing particles collision and growth to floc and then followed by sedimentation. To release suspended solids negative charges, coagulant with charges opposite those of the suspended solids are added to the water to be neutralized then the small suspended particles are capable of sticking together.

Then, coagulant makes submicroscopic microflocs that in flocculation they collide together and make bonds to produce larger visible pinflocs. Flocs size continues to build larger and once they reach optimum size, strength and weight then it will be ready for sedimentation. As a matter of fact, there are different flocculation process according to different rate that depend on collision frequency induce by the relative motion. Relative motion caused by Brownian movement is called perikinetic flocculation and if it is caused by velocity gradient is called orthokinetic that flocculation by external forces categorized in the second one [20].

Generally, coagulation and flocculation remove turbidity, colour, pathogens, algae, phosphates, bad smell and bad taste factors and some others then it is an important step of water treatment that its improvement means more efficient treatment. Hence, coagulants should be added to water in flash mixer for flocculation in flocculation basin. Flocculation improvement depends on different factors like PH, temperature, coagulant efficiency, but high-energy and rapid-mix to properly disperse coagulant and promote particle collisions is needed to achieve good coagulation what is followed by flocculation process but with different mixing velocity and energy to prevent floc from tearing apart.

Anyway, flash and effective dispersion of coagulant improve collision of particles and then micoflocs formation that will improve flocculation what finally will improve sedimentation as more efficient water treatment [21]. Refer to coagulation efficiency as an important factor for flocculation then sedimentation, nowadays though different nanoparticles usage make all these processes more efficient, but method of ultrasonic treatment gives the possibilities to increase the size of nanoparticles moving in the water [22]. On the other hand, flocs growing during flocculation as a significant process needs precise control that could be achieved via accurate mechanism like ultra-sonication.

Therefore, all of them conduct coagulation improvement, more efficient flocculation and sedimentation then less plant construction that means plant that is more feasible. Figure 4. Improvement of ultra-sonication [18] Figure 5. Basic model of water treatment 4. Conclusions Ultra-sonication is an effective method of water treatment from different nanoparticles used for cleaning the water from different toxic and pathogenic substances.

Along with sound waves parameters frequency, harmonic modes etc. Development of construction of transducing systems with flexible electromagnetic and mechanical properties will give the possibilities to build new precise instruments and ultrasonic sources allow purification of water from Nano sized particles of different origin as well as from their clusters and conglomerates.

ISBN John Fuchs, Ultrasonic cleaning: Theory and Applications. J Aerosol Sci , — Aerosol Sci. Kluwer Academic publishing, Dordrecht Mitropoulos, The Kelvin Equation: Why does a droplet form? Fisher, R. Skubis, Calibration of piezoelectric transducers for electric discharge acoustic signals Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, Volume 17, Number 2. Pretzer, Juan C. Velazquez, Zhun Zhao and Michael S. Wong, Gold nanoparticles for cleaning contaminated water. Kervalishvili, O. Some Aspects of Molecular Mixture Preparation. Georgian Engineering News.

N 2, , pp. PP: 39, Chen, G. Serad, R. Carbonell, Effect of mixing conditions on flocculation kinetics of wastewaters containing proteins and other biological compounds using fibrous materials and polyelectrolytes, Brazilian journal of chemical engineering, Vol.

Interface Science in Drinking Water Treatment, Volume 10 (December 9, edition) | Open Library

Kervalishvili, L. All rights reserved. Scheme of usage of magnetic nanoparticles for water cleaning. Scheme of magnetostrictive transducer.

Scheme of piezoelectric transducer. Improvement of ultra-sonication [18]. Figure 5. Basic model of water treatment. Nanotechnology in Water Treatment: Applications.

Mikhailov E. Niessner R. Pruppacher H. Huifeng Qian, Lori A.

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Interface Science in Drinking Water Treatment: Theory and Applications

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