Qty : Please note there is a week delivery period for this title. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari have arguably gone further than anyone in contemporary philosophy in affirming a philosophy of creation, one that both establishes and encourages a clear ethical imperative: to create the new. In this remarkable undertaking, these two thinkers have created a fresh engagement of thought with the world.
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This important collection of essays attempts to explore and extend the creative rupture that Deleuze and Guattari produce in the Capitalism and Schizophrenia project. The essays in this volume, all by leading thinkers and theorists, extend Deleuze and Guattari's project by offering creative experiments in constructing new communities - of ideas and objects, experiences and collectives - that cohere around the interaction of philosophy, the arts and the political realm. Deleuze, Guattari and the Production of the New produces new perspectives on Deleuze and Guattari's work by emphasising its relevance to the contemporary intersection of aesthetics and political theory, thereby exploring a pressing contemporary problem: the production of the new.
Colman University of Melbourne, Australia 8. Deleuze and the Production of the New, Daniel W. Further, its lack of formal structure and closure does have certain advantages, not the least that it remains true to some of Deleuze and Guattari's key ethical imperatives, namely: the importance of opening up movement and forging rhizomatic and transversal connections between problems and concepts. Other studies have since demonstrated the activity of mirror neurons in human animals Mukamel et al.
In this view there is a common empathy between the individuals of the same species that is rooted before any linguistic faculty. Mirror neurons allow Virno to sketch a theory of political agency based on a collective intersubjectivity that is only afterwards crossed and cut by the ambivalence of language and the violence of negation.
Thereafter, in an elegant way, Virno critiques this substrate of human nature with the introduction of two other logical steps: first, the power to negate natural empathy and communality with other human beings; and, second, the power to negate this negation, to reconstitute the public sphere in a proper constituent sense.
What is interesting for Virno is the fact that mirror neurons do not explain the power of negation, while the most peculiar trait of human thought is precisely the ability to negate. Language inoculates negativity into the life of the species. It enables the failure of reciprocal recognition. The linguistic animal is the species capable of not recognizing its own kind. Aside from the being able to cancel out neural empathy, completely or partially, language can also remove this contradiction. Virno , There is no ontological difference between thought and perception, abstraction and negation.
The theory of mirror neurons finds itself along the epistemological border where the scientific data of neurophysiology and the holistic logic of neurophenomenology look into each other as through a broken mirror. For sure, a new paradigm will emerge along this fault line.
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Indeed, the results of the first experiments on mirror neurons can be explained in a different and more dynamic fashion. Evolutionary scientists agree that mirror neurons are an achievement of evolution: very few animals are capable of imitation and learning by imitation to the same degree as primates. The ability of mirror neurons is something that our organism developed. But how? For a long time, to be sure, primates had neurons that were firing independently when an action was performed and when the same action was seen as performed by somebody else: see for instance those monkeys that take up to four years to imitate an action to source food that was discovered or invented by a member of the same group.
In this way empathy can be described as the power of abstraction in an organism that is able to associate with another one that which beforehand was only considered its own. If Gallese points to a pre-individual commonality , here the commonality is only post-individual—the effort and the projection of our power of abstraction.
Empathy is then possible only thanks to the power of abstraction and not the other way around. While negation can be considered a subset of abstraction, abstraction cannot be considered a subset of negation.
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In a similar vein to Virno, but arriving via a different philosophical tradition, I advance the idea that the power of abstraction is the only way to the common. Cognitive capitalism should be defined as the exploitation of the power of abstraction, intended as the cognitive power of the human organism, as the very living force that can project the human beyond its own identity, build empathy and the common, manipulate objects, machines and information.
The main thesis of this text is the following: we develop psychopathologies when we lose our power of abstraction, not when we overuse it.
In Goldstein the failure of the power of abstraction is what produces catastrophic behaviour, in a similar way to how Berardi and Marazzi have described the reaction of our body to semio-capitalism and digital mediascape as panic and attention disorder. The way to autonomous and collective subjectivation starts here: from the general intellect searching for a body.
The very basic body, the poorest form of perception, do not exist without the power of abstraction, articulation and differentiation described also by Merleau-Ponty 35, In this way the solution is not about reclaiming the body, affection, libido, desire and so on. Rather it is about reclaiming abstraction, the power to differentiate, articulate and bifurcate: in order to perceive at a higher degree of detail, and to perceive our feelings at a higher degree of detail. In his book The Ego Tunnel , Metzinger has framed the so-called psychopathologies of the digital age with these words:.
The Internet has already become a part of our self-model. We use it for external memory storage, as a cognitive prosthesis, and for emotional autoregulation… Clearly, the integration of hundreds of millions of human brains… into ever new medial environments has already begun to change the structure of conscious experience itself… Today, the advertisement and entertainment industries are attacking the very foundations of our capacity for experience, drawing us into the vast and confusing media jungle… We can see the probable result in the epidemic of attention-deficit disorder in children and young adults, in midlife burnout, in rising levels of anxiety in large parts of the population… New medial environments may create a new form of waking consciousness that resembles weakly subjective states—a mixture of dreaming, dementia, intoxication, and infantilization.
Metzinger As a response to this scenario Metzinger advances the idea of neuropedagogy, which revolves around the ideas of introducing classes of meditation at the high schools, preparing the young against the commercial robber of attention and teaching different techniques of empowered consciousness. Metzinger reserves a particular attention also to the chemical dimension of neuropedagogy a part that cannot be expanded upon here and discusses the popular and recreational uses of substances such as mescaline, ketamine, Ritalin, MDMA and 2CB, pointing to the humorous, but indeed very serious, concept of cosmetic psychopharmacology.
Neuropedagogy is only the first step of what Metzinger describes as the project of a new Consciousness Revolution, where his tone becomes more militant. There seems to be neither fatalism nor victimism in this proposal: it is about reclaiming, defending and expanding the power of abstraction that is continuously colonised by capitalism. At the end it is about organising an epistemic acceleration, to become more cognitive than cognitive capitalism, not less. Canguilhem, Georges, La Connaissance de la vie.
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