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This is a dummy description. This book explains one of the hottest topics in wireless and electronic devices community, namely the wireless communication at mmWave frequencies, especially at the 60 GHz ISM band. It provides the reader with knowledge and techniques for mmWave antenna design, evaluation, antenna and chip packaging. Addresses practical engineering issues such as RF material evaluation and selection, antenna and packaging requirements, manufacturing tolerances, antenna and system interconnections, and antenna One of the first books to discuss the emerging research and application areas, particularly chip packages with integrated antennas, wafer scale mmWave phased arrays and imaging Contains a good number of case studies to aid understanding Provides the antenna and packaging technologies for the latest and emerging applications with the emphases on antenna integrations for practical applications such as wireless USB, wireless video, phase array, automobile collision avoidance radar, and imaging.
Based on the parametric analysis and results, it is proposed that the switchable array has a better performance in terms of beam-switching, body loss, and realized gain on the chassis top position when compared with the bottom of the chassis. It is also proposed to design an additional array on the bottom side of the chassis, which results in a decreased shadowing effect in talking mode.
Yu et al. The proposed beam-steering array comprises two subarrays, each having eight identical elements on both sides of a mobile device with a metallic casing, as shown in Figure 13 a. A slot element with a cavity-backed structure is proposed, which is easy to fabricate on the metallic casing of the mobile terminal. An important factor is to determine the optimum position of the proposed phased subarrays inside the mobile terminal before finalizing the actual design in practice. The high-gain directional radiation pattern of the slot element is achieved.
Figure 13 c illustrates the design of one of the proposed eight-element phased arrays. It is proposed to use small stepped pins soldered on the microstrip feed line feeding each element of the subarray. The microstrip feeding line is printed on a 0. Each element has been provided by the phase variation using 6-bit phase shifters within a GHz front-end RF integrated circuit RFIC chip to accomplish beam-steering, as illustrated in Figure 13 e. Figure 13 d shows the block diagram of the eight-element beam-steering phased array.
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Figure 13 f shows the simulated and experimented S 11 and S 21 plots. Two-dimensional 2D radiation plots for various scanning angles of the proposed phased array are shown in Figure 13 g. Redrawn from [ 41 ]. Table 1 categorizes the performance of recent phased arrays for the 5G mobile terminal devices discussed in this section. A performance comparison has been made based on the beam-scanning capability, peak gain, and array elements of various phased arrays.
In mm-wave cellular networks, backhaul systems and BSs will generally be deployed in crowdy environment on the poles, beacons, and building tops.
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The combined data to or from the multiple users will be transmitted with less delay from the mm-wave BS to the central hub through various mm-wave wireless or optical channels. The communication range for the outdoor mm-wave access link would be larger when compared to indoor mm-wave communication links, but the power consumption of the user end terminals cannot be increased.
Because of the high signal attenuation at mm-wave frequencies, the effective communication distance of mm-wave systems is limited when compared to microwave signals. To reduce the increased path loss in outdoor environments, and owing to the user mobility, a suitable beamforming technique is required for implementation in cellular communication access links in the mm-wave frequency band. This can be realized by using the mm-wave BS equipped with high-gain phased arrays, where there is a relaxation of size and power consumption requirements. Phased arrays at millimeter-wave frequencies present a high-data-rate communication solution using high bandwidth and directional links between the BS and MS terminals.
In [ 9 ], Zhang et al. Four different types of array architectures, i. The 2D radiation plots that were retrieved from 3D radiation patterns are illustrated in Figure The analysis of different array architectures shows that the array architecture with circular elements has a larger coverage area with high gain and directivity compared to those of the other antenna array architectures.
In [ 13 ], a testbed with a bandwidth of MHz at an operating frequency of 28 GHz, which was built to test the practicality of mm-wave cellular communications at Samsung Electronics, Suwon Korea, was presented. Redrawn from [ 13 ].
Advanced Millimeter-wave Technologies: Antennas, Packaging and Circuits
In [ 39 ], Jiang et al. The proposed antenna comprises an EM lens combined with an antenna array. Both the lens and antenna elements were fabricated using PCB technology. Figure 17 a,b respectively presents the side and top views of the proposed lens antenna. Each subarray comprises four SIW-fed square patches as radiating patches. The design overview of the seven-element SIW-fed stacked patch antenna array is given in Figure 17 b. The proposed multilayer antenna array is fabricated on a Rogers ROC substrate having a dielectric constant of 3.
The thickness of the top and bottom layers is 0. Both layers are joined together with a bonding layer of Rogers ROB, which has a dielectric constant of 3. A photograph of the fabricated prototype of the proposed seven-element array loaded with an EM lens is shown in Figure 17 c. The measured dB impedance matching ranges from Figure 17 e shows the experimented radiation patterns of the proposed phased-array lens integrated antenna at 28 GHz.
The measured peak gain of the lens-fed phased-array antenna is A printed Yagi-Uda antenna element combined with a microstrip balun structure was chosen as the radiating element in the transceiver. Owing to the compact size, ease of fabrication, high gain, and low-cost factors, the proposed Yagi-Uda antenna element exhibits the best option to be considered for mm-wave MIMO transceivers [ 51 ]. Figure 18 a depicts the design overview of the printed Yagi-Uda antenna element.
The experimental Tx and Rx peak gains are 29 dBi and 27 dBi, respectively. Redrawn from [ 15 ]. Along with the current IC-based packaging technology, there also exists an integrated analog-based phased-array solution proposed for 5G mm-wave communication [ 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 ]. In [ 53 ], a element RFIC-based phased array operating at 28 GHz, which supports dual polarization and accurate beam-scanning capability with the advantage of high output power, was presented.
The proposed RFIC reported in [ 53 ] is compact and efficient with respect to size, and scaled, which supports dual polarization at the Tx and Rx with in-packaged array technology. In [ 54 ], an IC-based transceiver with a flip-chip package phased array operating at 28—32 GHz was proposed for 5G mm-wave communication.
The proposed IC chip comprised four separate TRx channels along with 6-bit phase shifters and a 4-bit dB gain control. The proposed antenna design shown in Figure 16 b has a dB reflection coefficient of 0. The peak array gain is 18 dBi and 12 dBi for the Tx and Rx ends, respectively.
In [ 67 ], a multilayer element dual-polarized antenna-in-package assembly with four-SiGe BiCMOS multi-chip phased array operating at 28 GHz was proposed for 5G mm-wave communication. The proposed antenna array has a 3-GHz bandwidth at an operating frequency of 28 GHz. The measured Tx gain is around 35 dBi for the element antenna array. Table 2 shows the performance of recently developed phased arrays for 5G access terminals demonstrated in this section. A performance comparison was made based on the beam-scanning capability and array elements of various phased arrays.
Although mm-wave technology is being considered overall for future 5G wireless communication systems, there remains the need for improvement and changes in current mm-wave architectures and the expected commercial designs to be used in mm-wave cellular communication networks [ 4 , 6 , 9 ]. A few basic improvements are required with respect to the deployment and implementation of mm-wave cellular networks.
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Sophisticated antenna array designs are proposed to improve the performance of wireless communication systems in terms of high gain and coverage area. Because there is a trade-off between the gain and bandwidth, phased arrays structures offer an increased angular beam-scanning range along with high gain [ 70 ].
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Various types of phased-array structures have been developed in the last few years. For the BS array antenna, there remains a relaxation of the space factor for designing complicated phased-array designs with increased spatial beam-scanning. However, in the case of MS antennas, it is more demanding to implement phased arrays in cellular handsets because of the limited space, user mobility, and user effects. Therefore, in this article, we discussed in detail the design constraints and implementation challenges of mm-wave phased arrays for 5G mobile terminals MSs and access terminals BSs.
To obtain the directional fan-beam radiation patterns in both the vertical and horizontal directions, two separate phased arrays positioned on the top and bottom of the chassis of a cellular handset were demonstrated in [ 10 ].
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In [ 49 ], 3D beam-scanning was achieved by employing a folded 3D structure using three subarrays at the top position, but there is a limitation in terms of the implementation of the 3D array structure in the cellular handset. To address this limitation, 3D coverage was achieved in [ 50 ] using the surface waves of three identical slotted subarrays by switching the main beam direction to separate regions.
Each subarray behaves similar to a phased array to tilt the beam to a separate region. To address the polarization mismatch [ 7 , 46 ] and incurred losses owing to the mobility of the user and various kinds of motions experienced by the mobile terminals at different angles, multi-polarized, i. To achieve polarization diversity along with the enhanced bandwidth, printed horizontally polarized and vertically polarized quasi-Yagi-Uda antennas were implemented [ 51 ].